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Table 2 Steps of asthma maintenance therapy during pregnancy

From: Asthma in pregnancy - from immunology to clinical managementAsma in gravidanza – dall’immunologia alla gestione clinica

Step Preferred controller medication Alternative controller medication
1 none -
2 Low-dose inhaled corticosteroid LTRA, cromolyn, theophylline
3 Medium-dose inhaled corticosteroid Low-dose inhaled corticosteroid + LABA or LTRA or theophylline
4 Medium-dose inhaled corticosteroid + LABA Low-dose inhaled corticosteroid + LTRA or theophylline
5 High-dose inhaled corticosteroid + LABA -
6 High-dose inhaled corticosteroid + LABA + oral corticosteroid -
  1. Definition of abbreviations: LTRA, leukotriene-receptor antagonist; LABA, long-acting beta-agonist. From [25] with permission.