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Table 2 Smoking cessation therapy (Modified from MC Fiore, 2008)

From: The clinical and integrated management of COPD. An official document of AIMAR (Interdisciplinary Association for Research in Lung Disease), AIPO (Italian Association of Hospital Pulmonologists), SIMER (Italian Society of Respiratory Medicine), SIMG (Italian Society of General Medicine)

Type of intervention Odds ratio (95% C.I.) Abstinence rate (95% C.I.)
Cognitive-behavioural treatment
None 1.0 10.9
Minimal advice (<3 min) 1.3 (1.01-1.06) 13.4 (10.9-16.1)
Counseling 3–10 min 1.6 (1.2-2.0) 16.0 (12.8-19.2)
Counseling > 10 min 2.3 (2.0-2.7) 22.1 (19.4-24.7)
Pharmacologic therapy
Placebo 1.0 13.8
Varenicline 3.1 33.2 (28.9-37.8)
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)   
Patch (6–14 weeks) 1.9 (1.7-2.2) 23.4 (21.3-25.8)
Chewing gum (6–14 weeks) 1.5 (1.2-1.7) 19.0 (16.5- 21.9)
Inhaler 2.1 (1.5-2.9) 24.8 (19.1-31.6)
SR Bupropion 2.0 (1.8-2.2) 24.2 (22.1-26.4)