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Table 6 Measures that may be adopted in preventing COPD exacerbations

From: The clinical and integrated management of COPD. An official document of AIMAR (Interdisciplinary Association for Research in Lung Disease), AIPO (Italian Association of Hospital Pulmonologists), SIMER (Italian Society of Respiratory Medicine), SIMG (Italian Society of General Medicine)

Measure Efficacy
Influenza vaccination Documented efficacy
Long term tiotropium administration Documented efficacy
Long term LABA administration Documented efficacy
LABA + inhaled corticosteroid administration Documented efficacy
LAMA + LABA + ICS Documented efficacy
Continuation of systemic steroid therapy for a brief period after AECOPD Documented efficacy
Respiratory rehabilitation Documented efficacy
Smoking cessation Documented efficacy
Polysaccharide antipneumococcal vaccination Controversial efficacy
Antioxidant-mucoactive drugs Controversial efficacy
Bacterial lysate Possible efficacy