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Table 7 Criteria for appropriate hospital admission for COPD exacerbations

From: The clinical and integrated management of COPD. An official document of AIMAR (Interdisciplinary Association for Research in Lung Disease), AIPO (Italian Association of Hospital Pulmonologists), SIMER (Italian Society of Respiratory Medicine), SIMG (Italian Society of General Medicine)

Inadequate or failed response to outpatient treatment
Presence of high risk comorbidity (pneumonia, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, diabetes, liver or renal failure) or very elderly patients
Past history of frequent exacerbations
Significant increase in dyspnea and/or onset of new signs (cyanosis, peripheral edema, arrythmias)
Significant worsening in hypoxemia
Worsening in hypercapnia/respiratory acidosis (not detectable at the patient bedside)
Mental status alterations
Lack of or unreliable family assistance
Diagnostic uncertainty