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Table 2 Variables obtained during the cardiopulmonary exercise test

From: The influence of active and passive smoking on the cardiorespiratory fitness of adults

Characteristics Non-smokers Passive smokers Active smokers p
  (n = 15) (n = 14) (n = 14)  
VO2max (% pred)* 118.44 ± 38.11** 89.75 ± 7.4 75.13 ± 17.78** <0.001
RQ peak (l·min-1) 1.13 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.3 0.82
HR resting (bpm) 70.6 ± 14.9 73.6 ± 11.8 77.6 ± 13.8 0.38
HR reached (bpm) 159.1 ± 19.6 160.1 ± 13.6 152.7 ± 13.9 0.42
SAP resting (mmHg) 117.9 ± 10.4 120.3 ± 12.6 120.9 ± 9.3 0.73
SAP reached (mmHg) 151.3 ± 11.2 148.9 ± 18.4 147.1 ± 9.1 0.70
DAD resting (mmHg) 76 ± 9.4 74.6 ± 7.4 74.6 ± 9.1 0.88
DAP reached (mmHg) 84.3 ± 5.6 85.3 ± 6.3 84.6 ± 7.4 0.91
  1. DAP, diastolic blood pressure; HR; heart rate; RQ, respiratory quotient; SAP, systolic arterial pressure; VO2max, maximum oxygen consumption;. Values are expressed as mean ± SD. p, p-value obtained through analysis of variance (ANOVA). *Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was also performed to compare VO2max and its covariates age, %F, WC and level of physical activity, among groups. Significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Significant difference between non-smokers and passive smokers (p = 0.022). **Significant difference between non-smokers and active smokers (p < 0.001).