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Table 1 Alterations that may be encountered in the oral preparation of swallowing

From: Swallowing disorders in tracheostomised patients: a multidisciplinary/multiprofessional approach in decannulation protocols

Alteration Consequence
Reduced lip closure Sialorrhea and food leaking out of the mouth
Limited jaw movements Total or partial chewing disfunction
Lip, cheek and anterior 2/3rd of the tongue sensitivity disorders Pooled foods between cheeks and gums and difficulty in managing the bolus
Alterations in anteroposterior, lateral and vertical tongue movements Difficulty in forming the bolus with possible falling and consequent aspiration
Reduced forward movement range of the soft palate Possible leak of food into the pharynx and aspiration into the respiratory tract