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Table 1 Patient characteristics for groups (case: beta-blockers, control: non-beta-blockers)

From: The safety of beta-blocker use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with respiratory failure in the intensive care unit

  Case, n = 74 Control, n = 114 p value
Age, years, median (quartile 1–3) 71 (63–77) 71 (64–75) 0.82
Female/male 18/56 28/86 0.97
BMI, kg/m2, median (quartile 1–3) 23 (22–27) 24 (21–28) 0.82
Comorbidities, n (%) 69 (93.2) 100 (87.7) 0.22
 AF, n (%) 56 (75.7) 80 (70.2) 0.41
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 20 (27.0) 29 (25.4) 0.81
 CAD, n (%) 12 (16.2) 14 (12.3) 0.45
 Hypertension, n(%) 42(56.8) 73 (64) 0.32
Pre ICU location, n (%)
 Emergency service 40 (54.1) 55 (48.2) 0.69
 Hospital ward 31 (41.9) 55 (48.2)
 Another ICU 3 (4.1) 4 (3.5)
Reason for ICU admission
 COPD exacerbation 64 (86.5) 101 (88.6) 0.35
 Pneumonia 8 (10.8) 6 (5.3)
 Hemodynamic monitoring 0 (0) 3 (2.6)
 Postoperative respiratory failure 0 (0) 1 (0.9)
 Home ventilator evaluation 2 (2.7) 0 (0)
 Sepsis, n (%) 50 (67.6) 76 (66.7) 0.90
 Septic shock, n (%) 12 (16.2) 13 (11.4) 0.34
 ICU admission APACHE-II value 19 (17–23) 20 (16–24) 0.88
 ICU admission CRP mg/L 39 (14–91) 41 (14–125) 0.33
 Peak of CRP mg/L median 64 (23–130) 110 (30–178) 0.08
 Microbiologic culture, n (%) 51 (68.9) 67 (58.8) 0.16
   Positive culture n (%) 18 (35.3) 27 (23.7) 0.58
   Resistant pathogen, rate 14/18 23/27 0.43
Arterial blood gases analysis on admission ICU
   pH, median (quartile 1–3) 7.28 (7.25-7.37) 7.32 (7.25-7.40) 0.08
   PaCO2, mmHg, median (quartile 1–3) 72 (54–86) 73 (59–84) 0.78
   PaO2/FiO2, median (quartile 1–3) 160 (130–211) 168 (116–230) 0.65
Type of acute respiratory failure, n(%)
 PaO2/FiO2 <300 15 (20.3) 19 (16.7) 0.50
 PaO2/FiO2 < 300 and PaCO2 > 45 mmHg 46 (62.2) 79 (69.3)  
 PaCO2 > 45 mmHg 13 (17.6) 16 (14.0)  
  1. AF, atrial fibrillation; APACHEII, acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation II; BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRP, C- reactive protein; FiO 2 , fractionated inspired oxygen; ICU, intensive care unit, PaCO 2 , partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure; PaO 2 , partial arterial oxygen pressure.