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Table 1 Methodological steps for a questionnaire validation in two languages

From: Cultural and linguistic validation of the NHQ-2 Questionnaire: a specific instrument for assessing patient’s usability of inhalation devices

Pre-test
 administering the original list of questions to a limited, unselected sample of subjects;  
 identification of mistakes;  
 administering the revised list of questions;  
Validation
 check of each question’s validity (precision) and reliability (reproducibility);  
Translation of the definitive version of questions
 initial translation from the research language to the foreign language by a bilingual translator;  
 back-translation: a new translation, from the foreign language to the research language by a different translator;  
 comparison between the two translated versions of the questionnaire;  
 proceed in order to obtain two corresponding versions, equally understandable, and a comprehension rate >90 % for each question.