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Table 2 Comparison between studies evaluating aetiologies of bronchiectasis in adult patients

From: Why, when and how to investigate primary ciliary dyskinesia in adult patients with bronchiectasis

Paper Type and site of study Patients involved Patients screened for PCD PCD diagnosed Screening tests Diagnosis tests Features of PCD population
Amorim, 2015 [77] Monocentric, Retrospective, Cohort study
Portugal
202 5 with history of infertility 1 (0.5%) Semen analysis Not mentioned Not mentioned
Kadowaki, 2015 [78] Monocentric, Retrospective, Cohort study
Japan
147 147 2 (1%) Kartagener’s features Kartagener’s features Not mentioned
Verra, 1991 [79] Monocentric, Prospective, Cohort study
France
53 38 with diffuse bronchiectasis 5 (13%) Chest HRCT TEM Prevalence in North African patients 36%
Prevalence in European patients 4%
Pasteur, 2000 [80] Monocentric, Prospective, Cohort study
United Kingdom
150 150 1 (0.6%) Light microscopy with CBF TEM Not mentioned
King, 2006 [81] Monocentric, Prospective, Cross-sectional
Australia
103 103 1 (1%) Unexplained infertility Ciliary function Not mentioned
Shoemark, 2007 [11] Monocentric, Prospective, Cohort study
United Kingdom
240 240 17 (10%)
12 PCD positive 5 PCD likely
Saccharin test
nNO
Light microscopy
TEM
Age 36 ± 13
Anwar, 2013 [82] Two centres Prospective, Cohort study
United Kingdom
189 189 2 (1%) History of upper and lower respiratory symptoms and/or infertility Referral to specialized PCD centre Not mentioned
Qian, 2015 [83] Multi-centre, Prospective, Cohort study
China (Chinese Han ethnicity)
476 71 with history of upper and lower respiratory symptoms or Kartagener’s features 4 (0.9%) Saccharin test TEM Not mentioned
Lonni, 2015 [24] Multicentre, International, Prospective, Cohort study
Italy
United Kingdom
Spain
Greece
Belgium
Ireland
1258 Not mentioned 21 (1.7%) History of upper and lower respiratory symptoms
Saccharin test
nNO
Referral to specialized PCD centre Younger than 50 years
Non-smokers
Mild disease 11 (52.4%)
Moderate 8 (38.1%)
Severe 2 (9.5%)
Guan, 2015 [84] Multicentre, Prospective, Cohort study
China
148 148 2 (1.4%) Saccharin test Kartagener’s features Younger than other bronchiectasis patients
Dimakou, 2016 [85] Monocentric, Prospective, Cohort study
Greece
277 32 with history of respiratory distress syndrome after birth, of upper and lower respiratory symptoms since childhood and/or infertility 12 (4%) Saccharin test
nNO
TEM Not mentioned
Olveira, 2017 [86] Multi-centre, Prospective, Cross-sectional
Spain
2047 Not mentioned 60 (2.9%) Clinical features
Saccharin test
Seroalbumin
NO (not specified if FENO or nNO)
TEM Age 42.9 ± 8.8
Age at diagnosis 22.1 ± 18.1
Male 29 (48.3%)
Smokers 14 (23.3%)
BMI 23.8 ± 6.1
FEV1 (%) 67.1 ± 24.2
Chronic Infection Pa 27 (45%)
Inhaled ATB
21 (39.6%)
Bilateral bronchiectasis 29 (48.3%)
  1. Features of PCD populations are presented as mean ± SD or number (%)
  2. PCD Primary ciliary dyskinesia, HRCT High-resolution computed tomography, nNO Nasal nitric oxide, HSVA High-speed video analysis, TEM Transmission electron microscopy, CBF Ciliary beat frequency, FENO Orally exhaled nitric oxide, SD Standard deviation