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Table 1 Characteristics of the population, overall and group-specific

From: Breathlessness, but not cough, suggests chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly smokers with stable heart failure

  Overall (n = 96) HF (n = 64) HF + COPD (n = 32) p*
Age – mean (SD) 74.14 (5.6) 74.14 (5.6) 74.13 (5.7) .99
Male (%) 91 89 94 .45
Pack/year – mean (SD) 39.1 (20.0) 39.0 (20.0) 39.4 (20.5) .93
BMI – mean (SD) 28.7 (4.3) 28.8 (3.7) 28.6 (5.3) .83
6MWT – mean (SD) 397 (160) 419 (155) 353 (164) .06
LVEF– mean (SD) 43.8 (10.0) 44.6 (10.0) 42.0 (10.2) .24
Hb – mean (SD) 13.6 (1.7) 13.6 (1.8) 13.6 (1.6) .98
GFR – mean (SD) 56.5 (20.1) 56.7 (19.9) 56.2 (20.8) .90
Comorbidities
 CCI – mean (SD) 5.9 (1.7) 5.8 (1.6) 6.1 (1.8) .43
 IHD (%) 65.6 67 62 .65
 Stroke (%) 3.1 1.6 6.2 .21
 CKD (%) 12.5 10.9 15.6 .51
 PAD (%) 11.5 10.9 12.5 .82
 Met synd (%) 67.7 71.9 59.4 .21
 Diabetes (%) 34.4 39.1 25.0 .17
 Osteoporosis (%) 2.1 1.6 3.1 .61
 Anxiety (%) 4.2 1.6 9.4 .07
Symptoms
 mMRC – mean (SD) 1.3 (0.95) 1.1 (0.92) 1.72 (0.9) .001
 CAT – mean (SD) 9.9 (6.2) 9.4 (6.3) 11.0 (6.0) .001
  1. *comparison between patients with HF and patients with HF + COPD
  2. 6MWT: 6-min walk test, BMI body mass index, CAT COPD assessment test, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, CKD chronic kidney disease, at least moderate, GFR glomerular filtration rate, Hb hemoglobin, IHD ischemic heart disease, LVEF left ventricle ejection fraction; Met synd: metabolic syndrome, mMRC modified medical research council, PAD peripheral artery disease