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Table 2 Factors associated with exacerbation and re-exacerbation, univariate analysis

From: Predictive factors for exacerbation and re-exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an extension of the Cox model to analyze data from the Swiss COPD cohort

  Factors associated with exacerbation Factors associated with re-exacerbation
General characteristics HR Lower/upper 95% confidence interval p HR Lower/upper 95% confidence interval p
Age (years) 1.084 0.977/1.203 0.127 1.168 0.977/1.396 0.088
Male sex 0.825 0.654/1.042 0.107 0.991 0.705/1.393 0.958
BMI (kg/m2) 0.832 0.650/1.064 0.142 1.201 0.847/1.703 0.304
Current smokers 0.954 0.755/1.205 0.693 0.803 0.574/1.122 0.198
Lung function
 FEV1/FVC 0.862 0.773/0.962 0.008 0.953 0.810/1.121 0.559
 FEV1 %Ref 0.877 0.812/0.947 0.001 1.000 0.864/1.157 0.997
 FVC %Ref 0.941 0.868/1.019 0.132 0.998 0.896/1.111 0.966
Symptoms
 mMRC dyspnea scale 0–1   Reference    Reference  
 mMRC dyspnea scale 2 1.349 1.055/1.726 0.017 1.332 0.859/2.065 0.200
 mMRC dyspnea scale 3 1.371 0.993/1.892 0.055 1.434 0.925/2.223 0.107
 mMRC dyspnea scale 4 3.036 1.930/4.777 < 0.001 1.974 1.083/3.600 0.026
 Cough 1.238 0.998/1.535 0.052 1.344 0.838/2.156 0.220
 Sputum 1.396 1.126/1.731 0.002 1.160 0.765/1.759 0.485
Treatment
 Short-acting bronchodilators 1.665 1.323/2.096 < 0.001 1.072 0.774/1.485 0.677
 Long-acting ß2-agonists (LABA) 1.037 0.813/1.324 0.768 0.857 0.612/1.199 0.368
 Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) 0.918 0.739/1.141 0.440 0.723 0.527/0.991 0.044
 Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) 1.460 1.120/1.903 0.005 0.965 0.694/1.343 0.834
 Inhaled combination therapy (LABA+ICS) 1.200 0.956/1.505 0.116 1.397 0.988/1.974 0.058
 Systemic corticosteroids 1.764 1.118/2.785 0.015 0.820 0.544/1.235 0.342
Comorbidities
 Asthma 1.271 0.965/1.675 0.088 0.997 0.676/1.472 0.988
 Diabetes mellitus 1.122 0.836/1.507 0.433 1.185 0.782/1.796 0.424
 Hypertension 1.108 0.869/1.413 0.408 0.852 0.610/1.190 0.348
 Coronary heart disease 1.239 0.933/1.644 0.139 1.177 0.796/1.741 0.413
 Heart failure 0.988 0.695/1.404 0.947 0.988 0.598/1.631 0.961
 Cerebrovascular Insult (CVI) 0.975 0.509/1.868 0.940 2.073 1.288/3.337 0.003
Other
 Sports (at least twice a week) 1.062 0.830/1.360 0.630 0.609 0.388/0.956 0.031
 Pulmonary rehabilitation 1.061 0.636/1.769 0.821 0.578 0.294/1.135 0.111
 Hospitalization for any reason 1.701 1.021/2.833 0.041 0.939 0.593/1.487 0.788