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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases in Egypt, 2010–2014

From: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI): results from the Egyptian surveillance study 2010–2014

Characteristic Viruses Not Identified (n = 2,132) N (%) Enrolled SARI cases (n = 1,075) N (%) P* RSV (n = 485) N (%) P$ Multiple Viruses (n = 174) N (%) P$ PIV (n = 125) N (%) P$ Adeno-Virus (n = 105) N (%) P$ Influenza Viruses (n = 77) N (%) P$
Demographics
Gender
 Female 810 (38) 569 (53) 0.562 257 (53) 1.000 90 (52) 0.741 65 (52) 0.449 47 (45) 0.081 48 (62) 0.054
 Male 1,322 (62) 506 (47)   228 (47)   84 (48)   60 (48)   58 (55)   29 (38)  
Age in years
 Mean ± SD 16.96 ± 25.3 5.74 ± 13.8   3.15 ± 9.64   5.48 ± 12.55   6.48 ± 14.82   4.48 ± 11.12   19.52 ± 23.47  
 Median 1.0 1.0   0.67   1.0   1.0   1.0   5.0  
 (Range) (0–90) (0–85)   (0–85)   (0–77)   (0–74)   (0–57)   (0–76)  
 < 18 years 1,493 (70) 981 (91) 0.000 470 (97) 0.000 162 (93) 0.143 111 (89) 0.523 97 (92) 0.330 47 (61) 0.000
 < 1 year 831 501   269   73   59   29   23  
 1–5 years 567 384   165   66   46   52   17  
 >  5 years 95 96   36   23   6   16   7  
 >  18 years 639 (30) 94 (9)   15 (3)   12 (7)   14 (11)   8 (8)   30 (39)  
Signs & symptoms at presentation
 Shortness of breath 1,555 (73) 1,033 (96) 0.000 485 (100) NA 174 (100) NA 125 (100) NA 105 (100) NA 77 (100) NA
 Sore throat 654 (31) 273 (25) 0.001 174 (36) 0.001 35 (20) 0.087 33 (26) 0.429 18 (17) 0.024 18 (23) 0.394
 Sputum production 1,169 (55) 566 (53) 0.077 254 (52) 0.902 86 (49) 0.396 66 (53) 0.524 63 (60) 0.068 46 (60) 0.120
 Hemoptysis 62 (3) 20 (2) 0.047 5 (1) 0.110 4 (2) 0.869 3 (2) 0.426 2 (2) 0.599 3 (4) 0.175
 Body aches 153 (7) 165 (15) 0.000 60 (12) 0.005 30 (17) 0.490 26 (21) 0.060 22 (21) 0.065 10 (13) 0.391
 Tachypnea 1,732 (81) 1,000 (93) 0.000 442 (91) 0.362 154 (88) 0.292 108 (86) 0.459 98 (93) 0.084 74 (96) 0.038
 Nasal congestion 300 (14) 647 (60) 0.000 322 (66) 0.161 113 (65) 0.244 69 (55) 0.128 53 (50) 0.397 30 (39) 0.131
 Wheezing 360 (17) 881 (82) 0.000 414 (85) 0.186 141 (81) 0.342 108 (86) 0.123 82 (78) 0.455 42 (55) 0.000
 Stridor 22 (1) 7 (0.6) 0.127 3 (0.6) 1.000 0 (0) 0.606 1 (0) 0.586 1 (0) 0.514 2 (0) 0.052
 Abnormal Breath
Sounds
955 (45) 558 (52) 0.159 239 (49) 0.140 84 (48) 0.314 74 (59) 0.054 60 (57) 0..256 49 (64) 0.023
 Nausea or vomiting 209 (10) 116 (11) 0.360 54 (11) 1.000 29 (17) 0.011 12 (10) 0.349 8 (7) 0.174 5 (6) 0.401
 Convulsions 63 (3) 108 (10) 0.000 44 (9) 0.245 18 (10) 0.891 15 (12) 0.284 17 (16) 0.026 8 (10) 0.215
Comorbidities
 Chronic Resp disease 343 (16) 460 (43) 0.002 227 (47) 0.062 52 (30) 0.044 35 (28) 0.066 45 (43) 0.078 35 (45) 0.053
 Asthma 87 119   77   22   21   28   26  
 COPD 42 66   13   6   2   0   4  
 Bronchiectasis 101 133   88   11   9   12   2  
 Othersa 113 142   49   13   3   5   3  
 Cardiac disease 512 (24) 214 (20) 0.392 81 (17) 0.046 37 (21) 0.050 31 (25) 0.078 26 (25) 0.055 12 (16) 0.158
 Heart failure 299 44   22   13   14   9   7  
 Congenital HD 114 147   48   15   11   15   2  
 Cardiomyopathy 99 23   11   9   6   2   3  
 Endocrine disease 147 (7) 124 (12) 0.000 50 (10) 0.249 19 (11) 0.897 24 (19) 0.004 13 (12) 0.420 12 (16) 0.158
 Diabetes mellitus 100 106   37   12   21   11   11  
 Obesity 47 18   13   7   3   2   1  
 Neuromuscular
disease
176 (8) 90 (8) 0.001 30 (6) 0.033 15 (9) 0.063 19 (15) 0.012 10 (10) 0.398 6 (8) 0.233
 Muscle dis 123 37   13   11   12   6   4  
 Epilepsy 53 53   17   4   7   4   2  
 Renal disease 43 (2) 11 (1) 0.951 5 (1) 0.866 0 (0) 0.322 3 (2) 0.198 0 (0) 0.314 2 (3) 0.200
 Chronic RF 34 9   5     3     2  
 Nephrotic Syndrome 9 2   0     0     0  
 Hepatic disease 54 (3) 9 (1) 0.002 2 (0.5) 0.001 3 (2) 0.192 2 (2) 0.277 1 (1) 0.579 1 (1) 0.496
 Ch hepatitis 9 5   2   2   0   1   1  
 Liver cirrhosis 33 3   0   1   2   0   0  
 Hepatic failure 12 1   0   0   0   0   0  
 Hematologic disease 23 (1) 5 (0.5) 0.583 0 (0) 0.051 1 (0.5) 0.428 1 (1) 0.377 2 (2) 0.079 1 (1) 0.496
Clinical course
 Pneumonia 175 (8) 29 (3) 0.004 13 (2.6) 0.033 4 (2) 0.066 1 (1) 0.288 4 (4) 0.054 3 (4) 0.299
 Admission to ICU 606 (28) 219 (20) 0.000 82 (17) 0.022 41 (23) 0.123 20 (16) 0.007 22 (21) 0.064 36 (47) 0.045
 Mechanical ventilation 221 (10) 100 (9) 0.412 43 (9) 0.052 13 (7) 0.778 8 (6) 0.373 7 (7) 0.213 17 (22) 0.001
Complications
 Respiratory failure 45 (2) 22 (2) 0.033 9 (2) 0.552 4 (2) 0.488 2 (2) 0.607 4 (4) 0.101 1 (1) 0.349
 ARDS 3 (0.1) 15 (1.5) 0.011 8 (2) 0.063 4 (2) 0.072 0 (0) 0.237 0 (0) 0.064 0 (0) 0.078
Outcomes$
 Discharged 1,852 (87) 956 (89) 0.005 433 (89) 0.045 153 (88) 0.051 116 (93) 0.289 100 (95) 0.131 62 (81) 0.006
 Transferred 174 (8) 95 (8.8)   40 (8.6)   20 (11.5)   7 (6)   3 (3)   10 (13)  
 Died 106 (5) 24 (2.2)   12 (2.4)   4 (2)   1 (1)   2 (2)   4 (5)  
  1. *P for comparison between virus-infected (SARI-positive) and non-infected (SARI-negative) individuals. P$ for SARI patients with a positive result for that pathogen compared to a reference group of tested SARI patients with a negative result for that pathogen. RSV Respiratory syncytial virus, PIV Para-influenza virus, ICU Intensive care unit, ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome, NA Not available a Others; immotile cilia syndrome, interstitial lung disease