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Table 1 Study population. (518)

From: Prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of patients coming from the community with sepsis due to multidrug resistant bacteria

Demographics characteristics
Female, n (%) 220 (42.5)
Median (IQR) age, years 80 (71–87)
Comorbidities, n (%)
Median (IQR) Charlson comorbidity index 6 (5–8)
Hypertension 289 (55.8)
Diabetes mellitus 124 (23.9)
Ischemic heart disease 109 (21.0)
COPD 114 (22.0)
Stroke 83 (16.0)
Dementia 79 (15.3)
Chronic heart failure 50 (9.7)
Chronic liver disease 38 (7.3)
Peripheral vascular disease 28 (5.4)
Hemiplegia 21 (4.1)
Cirrhosis 25 (4.8)
Risk factors for MDR pathogens, n (%)
Patients with at least one risk factor for MDR pathogens 397 (76.6)
Hospitalization in the past 90 days 147 (28.4)
Median (IQR) LOS 13 (8–21)
Day hospital attendance in the past 90 days 100 (19.3)
Antibiotic therapy in the past 90 days 80 (15.5)
Severe immunosuppression 98 (18.9)
Mild /moderate immunosuppression 83 (16.0)
Solid cancer 73 (14.1)
Chronic steroid therapy 68 (13.1)
Haematological malignancy 45 (8.7)
Chemotherapy 28 (5.4)
AIDS 3 (0.6)
Chronic renal failure 96 (18.5)
Dialysis 16 (3.1)
Home wound care/infusion therapy 82 (15.8)
Indwelling bladder catheter 70 (13.5)
Nursing home or LTCF residency 45 (8.7)
Indwelling intravascular catheters 31 (6.0)
Clinical findings
Median (IQR) body temperature, °C 38.0 (37.1–38.7)
Median (IQR) systolic blood pressure, mmHg 110 (90–135)
Median (IQR) diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 60 (50–70)
Median (IQR) mean blood pressure, mmHg 77 (63–92)
Median (IQR) heart rate, bpm 102 (88–120)
Median (IQR) oxygen saturation, % 95 (91–97)
Median (IQR) respiratory rate, bpm 22 (18–30)
Median (IQR) shock index 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
Laboratory findings
Median (IQR) arterial pH 7.5 (7.4–7.5)
Median (IQR) PaCO2, mmHg 30 (25–35)
Median (IQR) PaO2, mmHg 65 (55–77)
Median (IQR) HCO3 mEq/L 21.8 (18.0–24.6)
Median (IQR) PaO2/FiO2 ratio 276 (229–333)
Median (IQR) lactate, mEq/L 2.9 (2.1–4.3)
Median (IQR) white blood cells, cell/L−1 12.1 (7.3–17.9)
Median (IQR) platelets, cell/L−1 190.0 (131.0–258.5)
Mean (SD) haemoglobin, g/dL 12.3 (2.3)
Median (IQR) glucose, mg/dL 141 (110–192)
Median (IQR) urea, mg/dL 65 (46–97)
Median (IQR) creatinine, mg/dL 1.6 (1.2–2.4)
Median (IQR) C-reactive protein, g/dL 11.4 (4.5–22.7)
Median (IQR) aspartate aminotransferase U/l 28 (20–50)
Median (IQR) alanine aminotransferase U/l 21 (13–39)
Median (IQR) lactate dehydrogenase 327 (222–457)
Median (IQR) total bilirubin, mg/dL 0.8 (0.5–1.6)
Median (IQR) INR 1.3 (1.2–1.5)
Site of primary infection, n (%)
Lung 273 (59.9)
Urinary tract 166 (36.4)
Abdomen 59 (12.9)
Skin and soft tissue 31 (6.8)
Central nervous system 9 (2.0)
Bone and joints 4 (0.9)
More than one site 82 (15.8)
Unknown origin 62 (12.0)
MOF, n (%)
Metabolic dysfunction 359 (75.6)
Renal failure 223 (43.6)
Hemodynamic failure 200 (39.0)
Cognitive impairment 158 (32.9)
Shock 146 (28.2)
Respiratory failure 94 (18.4)
Liver failure 67 (13.9)
Coagulation dysfunction 56 (12.1)
Haematological dysfunction 51 (9.9)
Antibiotics, n (%)
Azithromycin 40 (5.5)
Piperacillin/Tazobactam 188 (25.9)
Ceftriaxone 164 (22.6)
Levofloxacin 111 (15.3)
Imipenem 66 (9.1)
Vancomycin 51 (7.0)
Ciprofloxacin 28 (3.9)
Amoxicillin/Clavulanate 22 (3.0)
Metronidazole 16 (2.2)
Meropenem 5 (0.7)
Ampicillin 7 (1.0)
Amikacin 7 (1.0)
Ceftazidime 5 (0.7)
Others 16 (2.2)
Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy according to local guidelines 273 (58.3)
Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy according to antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogen 155 (66.8)
Use of vasopressors 84 (16.2)
Mechanical ventilation 8 (2.5)
  1. n number, IQR interquartile range, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome; LTCF long term care facility, INR International normalized ratio; MOF: multi organ failure (other than primary site of infection)