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Table 5 Study population according to in-hospital mortality. (518)

From: Prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of patients coming from the community with sepsis due to multidrug resistant bacteria

Variable Survivors Death p
Hospital mortality, n (%) 378 (74.0) 133 (25.7)
Demographics characteristics
Female, n (%) 158 (41.8) 59 (44.4) 0.61
Median (IQR) age 78 (69–85) 81 (75–87) 0.01
Comorbidities, n (%)
COPD 85 (22.5) 28 (21.1) 0.73
Diabetes mellitus 99 (26.2) 23 (17.3) 0.04
Hypertension 211 (55.8) 75 (56.4) 0.91
Ischemic heart disease 73 (19.3) 36 (27.1) 0.06
Chronic heart failure 35 (9.3) 15 (11.3) 0.50
Peripheral vascular disease 14 (3.7) 14 (10.5) 0.003
Stroke 54 (14.3) 27 (20.3) 0.10
Hemiplegia 14 (3.7) 7 (5.3) 0.44
Dementia 54 (14.3) 24 (18.1) 0.30
Chronic liver disease 27 (7.1) 11 (8.3) 0.67
Cirrhosis 16 (4.2) 8 (6.0) 0.40
Chronic renal failure 64 (16.9) 31 (23.3) 0.10
Active dialysis 12 (3.2) 4 (3.0) 1.0
Solid cancer 53 (14.0) 20 (15.0) 0.77
Haematological malignancy 28 (7.4) 16 (12.0) 0.10
AIDS 2 (0.5) 1 (0.8) 1.0
Chemotherapy 19 (5.0) 9 (6.8) 0.45
Severe immunosuppression 62 (16.4) 34 (25.6) 0.02
Mild/moderate immunosuppression 61 (16.1) 22 (16.5) 0.91
Chronic steroid therapy 46 (12.2) 22 (16.5) 0.20
Median (IQR) Charlson comorbidity index 6 (4–8) 7 (5–9) 0.001
Risk factors, n (%)
LTCF 27 (7.1) 18 (13.5) 0.03
Antibiotic therapy in the past 90 days 50 (13.3) 30 (22.9) 0.009
Hospitalization in the past 90 days 91 (24.1) 55 (41.4) < 0.0001
Home wound care/infusion therapy 56 (14.8) 25 (18.8) 0.28
Day hospital attendance 73 (19.3) 25 (18.8) 0.90
Indwelling bladder catheter 49 (12.9) 20 (15.0) 0.55
Indwelling intravascular catheters 24 (6.4) 7 (5.3) 0.65
Clinical findings
Median (IQR) body temperature, °C 38.0 (37.2–38.8) 37.6 (36.6–38.5) 0.03
Median (IQR) systolic blood pressure, mmHg 113 (90–140) 99 (80–120) 0.0001
Median (IQR) diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 60 (50–73) 55 (46–68) 0.0006
Median (IQR) mean blood pressure, mmHg 78 (63–93) 70 (60–83) 0.0001
Median (IQR) heart rate, bpm 102 (87–120) 103 (88–120) 0.99
Median (IQR) oxygen saturation, % 95 (92–98) 94 (90–97) 0.06
Median (IQR) respiratory rate, bpm 22 (18–28) 28 (18–35) 0.008
Median (IQR) shock index 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.002
Laboratory findings
Median (IQR) arterial pH 7.5 (7.4–7.5) 7.4 (7.4–7.5) 0.0004
Median (IQR) PaCO2, mmHg 30.0 (26.0–35.0) 31.0 (24.0–36.5-) 0.80
Median (IQR) PaO2, mmHg 65 (55–76) 67 (55–82) 0.27
Median (IQR) HCO3- mEq/L 22.0 (18.3–25.0) 20.7 (15.4–24.0) 0.009
Median (IQR) PaO2/FiO2 ratio 281.0 (233.0–333.0) 271.5 (222.0–335.5) 0.88
Median (IQR) lactate, mEq/L 2.8 (2.1–4.0) 3.1 (2.1–5.7) 0.02
Median (IQR) white blood cells, cell/L−1 12.2 (7.4–17.8) 12.5 (7.3–19.3) 0.50
Median (IQR) platelet, cell/L− 1 198.0 (140.0–254.0) 181.0 (105.5–276.0) 0.45
Mean (SD) haemoglobin, g/dL 12.6 (2.2) 11.4 (2.3) < 0.0001
Median (IQR) glucose, mg/dL 144.5 (113.0–198.0) 126.5 (100.5–185.0) 0.004
Median (IQR) urea, mg/dL 58 (43–87) 87 (63–145) < 0.0001
Median (IQR) creatinine, mg/dL 1.5 (1.1–2.1) 2.0 (1.5–4.1) < 0.0001
Median (IQR) C-reactive protein, g/dL 10.0 (3.8–21.6) 15.7 (7.1–25.9) 0.0006
Median (IQR) Aspartate aminotransferase 28 (20–46) 33 (20–65) 0.05
Median (IQR) Alanine aminotransferase 21 (13–40) 24 (12–39) 0.85
Median (IQR) total bilirubin, mg/dL 0.8 (0.5–1.7) 1.0 (0.6–1.6) 0.52
Median (IQR) INR 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 1.3 (1.2–1.7) 0.40
Site of infection, n (%)
Lung 192 (57.3) 77 (67.0) 0.07
Urinary tract 134 (40.0) 31 (27.0) 0.01
Central nervous system 6 (1.8) 2 (1.7) 1.0
Abdomen 43 (12.8) 16 (13.9) 0.77
Skin and soft tissue) 18 (5.4) 13 (11.3) 0.03
Bone and joints 3 (0.9) 1 (0.9) 1.0
Multiple origin 58 (15.3) 24 (18.1) 0.47
Unknown origin 43 (11.4) 18 (13.5) 0.51
Severity of disease, n (%)
Hemodynamic failure 136 (36.3) 64 (48.9) 0.01
Respiratory failure 71 (19.0) 23 (17.6) 0.71
Renal failure) 153 (41.1) 68 (51.5) 0.04
Liver failure 44 (12.6) 23 (18.1) 0.12
Cognitive impairment 106 (29.9) 49 (40.8) 0.03
Haematological dysfunction 34 (9.0) 15 (11.5) 0.42
Coagulation dysfunction 33 (9.9) 22 (18.0) 0.02
Metabolic dysfunction 261 (74.8) 94 (78.3) 0.43
Shock 75 (19.8) 69 (51.9) < 0.0001
Microbiological findings, n (%)
Blood cultures performed in the first 48 h 326 (86.2) 114 (85.7) 0.88
Bacteremia 148 (45.4) 48 (42.1) 0.54
Cultures () ()  
Culture positive 224 (59.3) 77 (57.9) 0.78
Polymicrobial infection 16 (7.1) 13 (16.7) 0.01
MDR pathogen isolated 52 (13.8) 35 (26.3) 0.001
ESBL producer pathogen isolated 33 (8.7) 16 (12.0) 0.27
MRSA isolated 6 (1.6) 14 (10.5) < 0.0001
Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy according to local guidelines 190 (56.6) 77 (61.6) 0.33
Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy according to antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogen 118 (71,1%) 56 (37,1%) 0,058
Use of vasopressors 49 (13.0) 35 (26.3) < 0.0001
Mechanical ventilation 4 (1.6) 4 (5.3) 0.09
  1. n number, IQR interquartile range, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, LTCF long term care facility, INR International normalized ratio, MOF multi organ failure (other than primary site of infection)