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Table 1 Comparison of groups by etiology

From: A novel biomarker in the diagnosis of parapneumonic effusion: neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin

Causes of effusion (N) HF (25) MPE (25) PPE (25) TE (25) p
Age* 75 ± 9 71 ± 12 69 ± 16 39 ± 12 <0.001
Sex (W/M) 4/21 7/18 5/50 11/14 0.154
NGAL(S) (ng/ml)** 86 ± 31 103 ± 42 171 ± 56 63 ± 19 <0.001
NGAL(Pl) (ng/ml)** 84 ± 23 74 ± 22 147 ± 71 75 ± 43 <0.001
NGAL rate (Pl/S)* 1,05 ± 0,35 0,86 ± 0,43 0,99 ± 0,72 1,27 ± 0,71 0.158
Sedimentation rate (mm/hour)* 32 ± 20 57 ± 18 72 ± 24 49 ± 11 <0.001
CRP (mg/dl)** 2,2 ± 1,7 5,6 ± 3,1 17,3 ± 7,9 10,6 ± 5,2 <0.001
WBC (/ml)** 6615 ± 1490 9967 ± 4234 13826 ± 4723 6911 ± 1101 <0.001
Neutrophils (/ml)** 5005 ± 2164 7202 ± 4854 11326 ± 5430 4802 ± 1273 <0.001
Pl. Leukocytes (/ml)** 571 ± 382 868 ± 1262 2841 ± 4302 3072 ± 1625 0.001
Pl. Neutrophils (/ml)** 149 ± 213 257 ± 466 2530 ± 3553 744 ± 406 <0.001
  1. * = Variables with parametric distribution. ** = Variables with non-parametric distribution.
  2. CRP, C-Reactive protein; HF, Heart failure; N, Number of patients; ng/ml, nanogram/milliliter; M, Men; MPE, Malignant pleural effusion; Pl, Pleural effusion; PPE, Parapneumonic pleural effusion; S, Serum; TE, Tubercular effusion; W, Women; WBC, White blood count.