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Table 2 Factors associated with the likelihood of developing pulmonary hypertension

From: Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with interferon therapy: a population-based study

Patient characteristics Hazard ratio (95% CI)
Indication for interferon
 Multiple sclerosis Reference
 Hepatitis C 1.43 (0.69, 2.96)
Age
 20–29 Reference
 30–39 0.26 (0.02, 4.23)
 40–49 1.46 (0.19, 11.19)
 50–59 2.41 (0.32, 18.29)
 60–65 4.05 (0.49, 33.36)
Gender
 Male Reference
 Female 1.02 (0.62, 1.68)
Comorbidity, Yes vs No
 Hypertension 1.43 (0.84, 2.43)
 Other liver diseasea 3.21 (1.93, 5.34)
 Diabetes 2.27 (1.25, 4.11)
 Chronic pulmonary disease 1.92 (0.82, 4.50)
 Sleep apnea 1.31 (0.31, 5.56)
 Connective tissue disorder 4.32 (1.71, 10.96)
 Obesity 0.73 (0.10, 5.51)
 HIV/AIDS 2.63 (0.63, 10.89)
 Valvular disease 3.76 (1.16, 12.21)
 Congestive heart failure 1.10 (0.15, 8.17)
  1. Note: Congenital heart disease and atrial fibrillation and flutter were not included in the model because there were no events among patients with such comorbidities. This model was adjusted for the year of the initial interferon treatment. aDoes not include hepatitis C