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Table 2 Severity of hospitalized AECOPD patients

From: Management of severe acute exacerbations of COPD: an updated narrative review

Clinical scenario Respiratory rate (breaths/minutes) Use of accessory respiratory muscles Change in mental status Supplemental oxygen given via Venturi mask able to improve hypoxemia (FiO2%) PCO2 pH
No respiratory failure 20–30 No No 28–35 Normal Normal
Acute respiratory failure (non-life-threatening) >  30 Yes No 35–40 Increased (50–60 mmHg) Normal
Acute respiratory failure (life-threatening) >  30 Yes Yes >  40 or not improved Increased (>  60 mmHg) ≤ 7.25
  1. Modified from references [1, 13]
  2. Abbreviations: FiO2 indicates fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO2, partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure