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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the overall and model population

From: Predictive factors for exacerbation and re-exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an extension of the Cox model to analyze data from the Swiss COPD cohort

  Overall population Known Model population Known
General characteristics N (%)/Mean (±SD) N (%) N (%)/Mean (±SD) N (%)
N total 1247   748  
Age (years) 66.4 (±11.8) 1243 (99.7%) 67.3 (±11.6), 748 (100%)
Sex, males 752 (60.4%) 1245 (99.8%) 471 (63.0%) 748 (100%)
BMI (kg/m2) 26.5 (±5.5) 1129 (90.5%) 26.2 (±5.29) 696 (93.0%)
Current smokers 577 (46.6%) 1239 (99.4%) 328 (44.1%) 744 (99.5%)
Ex-smokers 662 (53.4%) 1239 (99.4%) 416 (55.9%) 744 (99.5%)
Lung function
 FEV1/FVC 59.0% (±15.6) 1149 (92.1%) 53.1% (±11.5) 748 (100%)
 FEV1 %Ref 54.9% (±20.8) 1088 (87.2%) 49.5% (±17.4) 718 (96.0%)
 FVC %Ref 69.6% (±19.3) 1099 (88.1%) 69.5% (±18.9) 718 (96.0%)
 No COPD 268 (24.3%) 1101 (88.3%) 0 (0%) 718 (96.0%)
 GOLD 1 40 (3.63%) 1101 (88.3%) 32 (4.46%) 718 (96.0%)
 GOLD 2 351 (31.9%) 1101 (88.3%) 303 (42.2%) 718 (96.0%)
 GOLD 3 323 (29.3%) 1101 (88.3%) 287 (40.0%) 718 (96.0%)
 GOLD 4 119 (10.8%) 1101 (88.3%) 96 (13.4%) 718 (96.0%)
Symptoms
 mMRC dyspnea scale 0–1 610 (50.8%) 1201 (96.3%) 355 (49.0%) 725 (96.9%)
 mMRC dyspnea scale 2 350 (29.1%) 1201 (96.3%) 219 (30.2%) 725 (96.9%)
 mMRC dyspnea scale 3 199 (16.6%) 1201 (96.3%) 129 (17.8%) 725 (96.9%)
 mMRC dyspnea scale 4 42 (3.50%) 1201 (96.3%) 22 (3.03%) 725 (96.9%)
 Cough 864 (69.4%) 1245 (99.8%) 515 (68.9%) 747 (99.9%)
 Sputum 731 (58.8%) 1243 (99.7%) 446 (59.7%) 747 (99.9%)
Pharmacological COPD treatment
 Short-acting bronchodilators 466 (37.5%) 1242 (99.6%) 294 (39.4%) 747 (99.9%)
 Long-acting ß2-agonists (LABA) 355 (28.7%) 1237 (99.2%) 235 (31.5%) 745 (99.6%)
 Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) 509 (41.1%) 1238 (99.3%) 345 (46.2%) 746 (99.7%)
 Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) 270 (21.8%) 1237 (99.2%) 178 (23.8%) 747 (99.9%)
 Inhaled combination therapy (LABA+ICS) 632 (50.9%) 1242 (99.6%) 390 (52.1%) 748 (100%)
 Systemic corticosteroids 73 (5.89%) 1240 (99.4%) 42 (5.61%) 748 (100%)
Comorbidities
 Asthma 221 (20.6%) 1073 (86.0%) 130 (19.9%) 654 (87.4%)
 Diabetes mellitus 141 (13.1%) 1074 (86.1%) 86 (13.1%) 655 (87.6%)
 Hypertension 601 (55.8%) 1078 (86.4%) 366 (55.9%) 655 (87.6%)
 Coronary heart disease 228 (21.2%) 1075 (86.2%) 148 (22.6%) 655 (87.6%)
 Heart failure 159 (14.8%) 1073 (86.0%) 96 (14.7%) 654 (87.4%)
 Cancer (other than lung cancer) 52 (4.85%) 1072 (86.0%) 36 (5.51%) 653 (87.3%)
 Lung cancer 29 (2.70%) 1073 (86.0%) 16 (2.45%) 654 (87.4%)
 Cerebrovascular Insult (CVI) 36 (3.36%) 1073 (86.0%) 24 (3.67%) 654 (87.4%)
Physical activity
 Sports (at least twice a week) 334 (28.2%) 1183 (94.9%) 200 (27.6%) 724 (96.8%)
 Pulmonary rehabilitation 86 (7.01%) 1226 (98.3%) 55 (7.40%) 743 (99.3%)